In the game of hockey the game performance is the summation of all the acquired skills of the individual players. The ability of the players is determined by their grouping of all the acquired skills and being able to use them as the situation requires. As coaches we try to simulate game situations in practice in the theory that this will improve the team’s performance. In order to become better coaches and to better prepare our players for games, it is important to understand the fundamental principals of skill acquisition and the relationship of skills to skating.
As with skating or other skills it is essential to break down the over all skill into smaller pieces and practice the elements in “game related’ scenarios. The game related skill structure expresses the technical/repeatability and game like continuity of f skills. The consistency of techniques in concatenated skills and the couplings of movements of bodysegments are performance indicators. The game related skill structure is an outcome of the specific neuro muscular endowment of the player, cognitive sensitivity and organization of practice sessions.
The neuro-muscular machinery of the body controls neuro-motorics. A repetition of different structured motoric stimuli brings about an enhancement and reinforcement of playing habits. Recording and storage of events and their retrieval in specific analogous situations takes place along connecting, central and peripheral neural routes of the body. The motorics of the game thus become automated.
In other words, practice must contain or be representative of sections or situations that occur in a game. Another way to think about this is to practice “common reoccurring situations”
The motorics of the game comprises two essential categories of movement;
Dynamic component- sources imparting movement (strength, speed) made possible by a metabolic nutrition of muscle labor; and
The motorics of the game requires acquiring a wide range of associated skills and linked movements. Practice sessions must focus on exercising primary muscle groups which initiate links between skills and skating. The goal is to achieve consistency in the technique of associated skills and skating. The association of game-related skills and skating (the main mover) results in standardized and linked motoric concatenations associated with a particular segment of the game.
The concept of the motorics of the game is based on the kinematic involvement of the segments (legs, arms, and torso) and coupling their movements. To achieve game related skills the player must link skating to other body parts (feinting, dodging, and shooting).
The interaction of the above elements regulates and controls somatic dynamic stability.The dynamic body balance implies a movement cooperation pattern and is the basis of technical skills (fast hand- calm footwork- slow hands). Body stability is determined by the following factors:
Motoric component- an outer kinematic component which can be objectively observed. This is brought about by the neuro-muscular machinery of the body, which initiates, associates and couples movements.
Load-bearing central motorics- SKATING
So what does all this mean for a youth hockey coach? Perhaps we need to re think a bit about how we practice if we want our players to develop to their fullest potential. So here are some thoughts about practice design.
Connecting or linking actions- INERTIA, TURNS, CHANGES OF DIRECTION, CURVES, in other words INERTIA AND DEXTERITY Acute/urgent actions - FEINTING, SHOOTING, PASSING, EVASION, & DODGING.
Link game related skills to skating in order to develop standardized responses. Develop and strengthen the neuro-motoric mechanism of the game (skating).
Create and secure memory entries
Develop habits of game fluency insofar as puck control is concerned
Improve and enhance the overall condition of your players
The typical exercise to develop game-related skill structure should have the following components;
Originality of advance routes and localized centers of skating mobility
Elements of skill skating (transitions, corners, changes of direction)
Effective individual training for game-related skill structure will focus on the individual or small group of players. The objective is to focus on in-game techniques in a kinematic flow of concatenated and linked skills. Therefore in plain English, practice should focus on the links between skating and puck handling skills. A practice that aims to improve defense related skills will focus on skating (agility and mobility), puck control, and puck turnover skills.
In the course of a game a player draws on the full range of acquired and ingrained skills.
Repetitive exercises bring about a step by step fixation and automation of the essential motoric habits. Skating and game-related skills assume a motoric consistency as a result of practicing game-related skill structures.
If you want to teach your players game-related skills you must be creative and be able to put together attractive and novel practice exercises. Your ability to teach means that you should be able to see details and correct mistakes and to communicate the importance and role of the individual player. Your ability to demonstrate, provide accurate comments and feedback, and change the drill on the spot if needed is also important to the learning process of your players.
The common theme is skating and the link to other skills. It is essential that your players learn to skate well. Youth coaches need to focus on these skills as most players receive very little practical skating development . Add other skills to the skating exercises (multitasking) and you will begin to address the needs of your players. Your practices may consist of 80 percent skill exercises and 20 percent small area games to allow your players to develop read and react skills.
The approach to practice has evolved over the past 25 years to a more game based type of structure involving many full ice flow drills. Perhaps it is time to break that down into smaller pieces and help your players get the instruction and repetition they need in the essential skill elements to achieve their maximum potential.
To implement this approach take a drill like the break out and analyze all of the segments. Then design exercises for each element and practice those separately.
This approach may feel strange to you at first but as the player’s skills improve so will their game play. It is no surprise that the team with the best skilled players usually wins in the course of a season.
As players improve and the game evolves so must our coaching techniques. Coaches must be receptive to new ideas and concepts that will benefit their players and team. As teachers and instructors we need to continue to learn our craft and be sure we are current in our coaching skills. Simply attending a few clinics is not sufficient if you want your players to achieve their potential. Keep an open mind, learn from others, and question the traditional methods.
The longer I coach the more intrigued I am about finding new ways to help my players develop. As coaches we hope our players have a passion for learning the game. If we have a passion it is a good start and model for our young players
Multiple skill parts (stick handling, fakes, fake shots, passes)
Coaching young people in hockey or any other sport is primarily a teaching position.
Like any other teaching assignment, the instructor needs to possess the following qualities:
Competency in the subject matter
Strong Communication Skills
Passion for the subject being taught
A desire to improve as a teacher/coach (commitment)
Hockey is a very dynamic game that requires a multitude of individual skills and team skills. Every coach needs to be able to assess all of the skills of each player and then decide how best to coach the team. Once the assessment is completed a coach can thendetermine where to focus the practice time so that all of the players have the opportunity to improve their individual skills and their team skills.
Each season will bring new challenges and wise coaches tailor their season plan to the talent they have. The saying,“We coach the team we have, not the one we wish we had” is quite true.
So this is all good in theory but what does it mean to you? Maybe I can bring it down to the ice level with some examples and suggestions.
Drills are used to teach specific skills either individual or team. Each drill has a primary objective and perhaps one or more secondary objectives. Most all drills have one or two teaching points that a coach needs to understand and then communicate to the players on a regular basis. Telling your players the objective of each drill is very important. Then they know where to focus their attention.
The teaching method is described as follows:
Tell-Demonstrate-Observe-Correct. This sequence covers the three dominate learning styles that individuals favor. It is important to utilize this process for all of your drills so that all of your players understand each drill.observe and correct” aspect of the process. This is where the rubber meets the road. First of all the coach needs to observe the player as the drill is performed. Does the skater do it correctly? If not, then the player needs to be stopped and shown the correct way to do the drill. Allowing skaters to continually do drills incorrectly is a disservice to the players and lazy on the part of the coach.
The area that is most difficult for many coaches is the “
If they are doing them incorrectly they will develop bad habits that will shorten their playing days. Players who have bad habits by the time they are 15 year old have only their coaches to thank (blame).
One example that is easy to observe is crossovers preformed on a circle. Many young players are uncomfortable on their outside edges and therefore do not cross over and finish with a push from the underneath leg. Instead they quickly switch to the outside skate and repeat the process over and over and then faster to increase speed. The problem with this is that never get comfortable with the outside edge and they have trouble handling the puck with such a choppy motion. Although they may go a bit faster with the quick steps there is a limit to their ability to accelerate as they are turning. The solution isto slow them down and make the skaters perform the skill correctly. This needs to be a consistent message from mites all the way through high school.
Correcting players is also a bit of an art. Players’ often times are a bit sensitive to constructive criticism. There are many ways to go about it and have success. Phrase like;
“I would like you to try doing that a slightly different way” or “Please watch how I do it”
or perhaps “ I think if you can improve this skill it will help you take your game to the
next level. Do you want to try to do that?”
Punishing players verbally or with activities like push ups when they do not do a skill drill correctly demonstrates weakness on the part of the coach. Patience and quality repetitions will make your players better.
In the academic world teachers are constantly learning new ways to teach. At the upper levels of the coaching profession, the coaches are also looking for new ways to teach their players. I am part of an informal network of coaches and development people who are dedicated to finding improved ways to teach the game. We attendsymposiums here and in Europe. We make presentations at coaching clinics , share videos and ideas with that will help us a coaches. It is really important that youth coaches continually improve their knowledge base and coaching skills. The USA Hockey CEP clinics are only a beginning to the process not the end.
To develop into a highly skilled player takes 10,000 hours of practice and playing.
Learning to coach well also takes many years of coaching and learning from experience and from other coaches. Considering the many lives we all touch the effort is worth the effort.
With the 10-11 season fast approaching it is a great time to think about how you are going to approach your team this fall and set up for the long season. One change that I encourage coaches to think about is to rethink how they talk to and communicate with their players.
As coaches we are charged with sharing valuable information with our players and inspiring them to reach their potential. Maybe it is time to take a different approach with our players and make them part of the process.
Coaching the kids of the ipod and video game generation takes different communication skills than we used in the past. This current generation of players and their parents are more attuned to the entertainment value of youth sports and sports is a family affair. Youth coaches need to recognize this generational shift and change along with them.
The change we need to make is to start shifting the responsibility for individual player development from the coaches to the players. This is done by changing the dialogue and encouraging players to increase their on ice awareness and game understanding.
If we want our players to be creative, and we say we do, then we must allow them the freedom to do so and a framework of dialogue that allows them to learn.
The process for changing the dialogue is to spend time talking with your players about the game, the decisions they make and the other options they could have chosen. You can begin by asking open ended questions rather than telling a player what he or she shouldhave done. For example:Instead of saying “ you should have passed to your teammate in that situation”you would say “ Tell me why you made that decision”. You could follow it up with“what other options did you have?” Then you need to listen to the answers.
The answers will be short until they get used to the new approach but eventually they will open up and start seeing and articulating what they are observing. Encourage your players to watch the game when they are on the bench and try to analyze what the opponents strengths and weaknesses might be. This will help them as they learn to observe what is happening on the ice which in turn will help them when they enter the game.
In order to shift to this approach you will need to restructure your practices to make them more game like and to put your players into situations where they have to make decisions, not just follow the lines on the white board. Continuous flow drills like 2 on 1, 3 on 2 and 4-3 are great for this type of training. Lots of movement, decisions and very game like. Small area games with odd man situations that are ever changing are also good for learning the game. Again, remember that your role is to encourage your players to see the options and understand what their choices might be before they execute.
It is also quite helpful to shoot some video of games (we know they love videos) and let the team watch how they play. Again, the dialogue should be open ended questions regarding choices and options. A video of a couple practices to be viewed would also be useful. Each team seems to have a self designated video parent so they could be enlisted to help with this part.
Your players will take some time to adjust to this type of coaching. They are conditioned to direct feedback, most of it negative or corrective. The team may be a bit chaotic for a few weeks but once they and you get the hang of it they will make much more progress inthe second half of the season.
Kids want to play hockey and have fun. If you change your dialogue your players will understand and enjoy the game more, play with more enthusiasm and energy, and likely win more games.
I would call that a winning strategy.
April is a great time to review the past season and evaluate what worked and what did not. Spend some time reading books from well known successful coaches from all sports. As you plan for the next season try to incorporate new ideas and your new coaching skills. Take the time to attend a USA Hockey level 4 clinc to hear great ideas and stategies for coaches of all age players.
It is difficult to determine the worst fight in the history of hockey. There are so many great ones to choose from! Any fights containing Tie Domi, Joey Kocur, Bob Probert, Stu Grimson, Georges Laraque, or Rob Ray would top the list. However, one of the worst overall fights that "wowed" hockey fans took place in the "1997 Brawl in Hockeytown" between the Colorado Avalanche and the Detroit Red Wings. A year previous to the game, the Av's (Avalanche) Claude Lemieux hit the Wings' Kris Draper from behind and smashed his face into the boards, causing extensive cuts that needed surgery to repair. Everyone knew that eventually there would be payback for this. On March 26, 1997 at Joe Louis Arena, it finally happened. The game was full of big hits and scrums at every whistle. During a scuffle between Detroit's Igor Larionov and the Av's Peter Forseberg, Darren McCarty blind-sided Lemieux square between the eyes, dropping him to his knees. After a couple of upper-cuts, McCarty dragged him to the boards where he smashed his face a couple of times with his knee. Patrick Roy, the goalie of the Av's, skated to Lemieux's aid. Halfway down the ice, he was met by Brendan Shanahan's flying forearm. Detroit's goalie, Mike Vernon, then squared off at center ice with Roy, before finally taking him down. A bloodied Lemieux was helped off the ice as he could barely skate, or stand for that matter!
1-2-2 TRAP FORECHECK WITH A SWING
When the offensive player stops with the puck behind the net.
* First checker, forward one, swing in front toward to other side and replace forward two just above the face off circle.
* Forward two swing in front the other way and if the puck carrier stays behind the net he replaces forward three who is above the other face-off circle.
* If the puck is still behind net the original forward would swing, etc.
* When puck is moved from behind then trap as described in 1-2-2 trap.
* In the neutral zone defend the same as 1-2-2 trap.
Defensive Zone Coverage is the one man on and a box behind in all of these systems.
|Jennifer Mathes, Ph.D.|